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2018 Update on Pediatric Medical Overuse: A Review

PIPSQC is pleased to share the recent publication in JAMA Pediatrics, entitled "2018 Update on Pediatric Medical Overuse: A Review." In this review, researchers highlight the top 10 studies published in 2017 that they suggest may help reduce overuse in pediatrics.

The publication is available online at:
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2725043

ABSTRACT:

Importance:
Efforts to combat medical overuse have gained traction in recent years, but success has been intermittent and shortcomings have been recognized. A commitment to a strong evidence base is needed to more broadly engage clinicians and reduce overuse.

Observations:
A structured MEDLINE search and a manual review of tables of contents from selected high-impact journals was performed to identify original research published in 2017 relevant to pediatric overuse. Articles were scored from low to high for 3 categories: quality of methods, magnitude of potential harm, and number of patients potentially harmed. The top-scoring articles presented in this review highlight examples of safe reductions in treatment intensity, including in the setting of cancer, appendicitis, acute respiratory tract infection, and elective anesthesia. This year’s articles also provide cautionary examples of rational interventions adopted without a full understanding of potential harms, including pharmacologic migraine therapies, docosahexaenoic acid supplementation for preterm neonates, tight glycemic control for individuals with critically illness, and prophylactic antibiotics for children with vesicoureteral reflux.

Conclusions and Relevance:
The articles represent high-quality, original research from 2017 that may help mitigate overuse. These works should be fundamental to the maturation of the pediatric overuse field.